President Lincoln drømmer om drapet

President Lincoln drømmer om drapet

I følge minnet fra en av vennene hans, Ward Hill Lamon, drømmer president Abraham Lincoln denne kvelden i 1865 om "de dempet gråt av sørgende" og et lik som ligger på en katafalke i White House East Room. I drømmen spurte Lincoln en soldat som sto vakt "Hvem er død i Det hvite hus?" som soldaten svarte, "presidenten. Han ble drept av en leiemorder. " Lincoln våknet på det tidspunktet. 11. april fortalte han Lamon at drømmen hadde "merkelig irritert" ham siden. Ti dager etter å ha drømt, ble Lincoln skutt av en leiemorder mens han gikk på teatret.

LES MER: Hjemsøker spøkelsen fra Lincoln Det hvite hus?


President Lincoln drømmer om drapet - HISTORIE

President Lincolns nåværende drøm om attentatet

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14. april 1865 ble Abraham Lincoln, USAs 16. president, myrdet av John Wilkes Booth. Attentatet var angivelig en del av Booth & rsquos plan om å gjenopplive konføderasjonen, og han planla å drepe tre av nasjonens & rsquos viktigste embetsmenn. Booth opptrådte ikke alene, men han har minst tre konspiratorer, og de planla å gjøre natten til et blodbad. Mens Booth var vellykket, var det ikke hans medsammensvorne. David Herold og Lewis Powell drepte ikke William H. Seward, utenriksministeren, og George Atzerodt drepte ikke Andrew Johnson, visepresidenten.

I følge Lincoln & rsquos venn, og sporadisk livvakt, Ward Hill Lamon, spådde Lincoln mordet hans. Lamon hevdet at Lincoln delte detaljer om en drøm han hadde bare noen få dager før hans død. I den gikk presidenten inn i Det hvite hus og rsquos East Room hvor

han fant et lik beskyttet av soldater og omgitt av en sørgende skare. Lincoln spurte en av soldatene som hadde dødd. & ldquoPresidenten og rdquo var svaret. & ldquoHan ble drept av en leiemorder. & rdquo Det er tvil om sannheten til Lamon & rsquos -fortellingen og også et forslag om at Lincoln sa at liket ikke var ham.

Det virker stadig mer sannsynlig at Lamon fant opp det hele. Han publiserte ikke kontoen sin i 20 år, og det var en rekonstruksjon basert på notater han hadde gjort den gangen. Det er også rart at verken han, eller Lincoln & rsquos enke, nevnte drømmen etter presidentens og rsquos død. Imidlertid er det bevis som tyder på at den tidligere presidenten var ekstremt interessert i å tyde betydningen av drømmer og hva de sa om fremtiden. I 1863 skrev Lincoln til kona og sa at hun skulle legge sønnen og rsquos -pistolen bort fordi han hadde en stygg drøm om ham. & Rdquo

Ifølge medlemmer av hans kabinett snakket Lincoln om en drøm han hadde natten før attentatet. I den drømte han om å seile raskt over en vannmasse, men han visste ikke hvor det var. Lincoln avslørte at han hadde den samme drømmen flere ganger før alltid før viktige hendelser under borgerkrigen. Til slutt klarte han ikke å utnytte drømmenes prediktive kraft og ble drept natten til 14. april. Booth ble den mest etterlyste mannen i Amerika og ble drept 12 dager senere.


Innhold

Forlatt plan om å kidnappe Lincoln

John Wilkes Booth, født i Maryland i en familie av fremtredende sceneskuespillere, hadde ved attentatet blitt en berømt skuespiller og nasjonal kjendis i seg selv. Han var også en frittalende konføderert sympatisør på slutten av 1860 ble han innviet i de pro-konfødererte ridderne i den gylne sirkel i Baltimore. [5]: 67

I mars 1864 suspenderte Ulysses S. Grant, sjef for unionshærene, utvekslingen av krigsfanger med den konfødererte hæren [6] for å øke presset på det mannskapsutsultede sør. Booth tenkte en plan om å kidnappe Lincoln for å utpresse Nord til gjenopptatt fangeutveksling, [7]: 130–4 og rekrutterte Samuel Arnold, George Atzerodt, David Herold, Michael O'Laughlen, Lewis Powell (også kjent som "Lewis Paine "), og John Surratt for å hjelpe ham. Surratts mor, Mary Surratt, forlot tavernaen i Surrattsville, Maryland, og flyttet til et hus i Washington, DC, hvor Booth ble en hyppig besøkende.

Selv om Booth og Lincoln ikke var personlig kjent, hadde Lincoln sett Booth hos Ford i 1863. [8]: 419 [9] [10] Etter attentatet skrev skuespilleren Frank Mordaunt at Lincoln, som tilsynelatende ikke hadde mistanke om Booth, beundret skuespiller og hadde flere ganger invitert ham (uten å lykkes) til å besøke Det hvite hus. [11]: 325–6 Booth deltok på Lincolns andre innvielse 4. mars 1865, og skrev i dagboken sin etterpå: "For en utmerket sjanse jeg hadde, hvis jeg ønsket, å drepe presidenten på innsettelsesdagen!" [7]: 174,437n41

17. mars planla Booth og de andre konspiratorene å bortføre Lincoln da han kom tilbake fra et skuespill på Campbell Military Hospital. Men Lincoln gikk ikke på stykket, men deltok i stedet på en seremoni på National Hotel [7]: 185 Booth bodde på National Hotel den gangen, og hadde han ikke gått til sykehuset for det abortive kidnappingsforsøket, kan det ha vært kunne angripe Lincoln på hotellet. [7]: 185–6.439n17 [12]: 25

I mellomtiden kollapset Konføderasjonen. 3. april falt Richmond, Virginia, den konfødererte hovedstaden, for Unionens hær. April overga generalsjefen for hærene i de konfødererte statene Robert E. Lee og hans hær i Nord -Virginia seg til kommanderende general for den amerikanske hæren Ulysses S. Grant og hans hær av Potomac etter slaget ved Appomattox Court House. Den konfødererte presidenten Jefferson Davis og andre konfødererte tjenestemenn hadde flyktet. Likevel fortsatte Booth å tro på den konfødererte saken og søkte en måte å redde den på. [13]: 728

Motiv

Det er forskjellige teorier om Booths motivasjoner. I et brev til moren skrev han om sitt ønske om å hevne Sør. [14] Doris Kearns Goodwin har støttet ideen om at en annen faktor var Booths rivalisering med sin velkjente eldre bror, skuespilleren Edwin Booth, som var en lojal unionist. [15] David S. Reynolds mener Booth beundret sterkt abolisjonisten John Brown [16] Booths søster Asia Booth Clarke siterte ham for å si: "John Brown var en mann inspirert, århundrets flotteste karakter!" [16] [17] 11. april deltok Booth i Lincolns siste tale, der Lincoln fremmet stemmerett for svarte [18] Booth sa "Det betyr niger statsborgerskap.. Det er den siste talen han noen gang vil holde." [19]

Rasende oppfordret Booth Lewis Powell til å skyte Lincoln på stedet. Om Booth fremsatte denne forespørselen fordi han ikke var bevæpnet eller betraktet Powell som et bedre skudd enn ham selv (Powell, i motsetning til Booth, hadde tjenestegjort i den konfødererte hæren og dermed hadde militær erfaring) er ukjent. Uansett nektet Powell av frykt for mengden, og Booth var enten ute av stand til eller uvillig til å prøve å drepe presidenten personlig. Imidlertid sa Booth til David Herold: "For Gud, jeg skal klare ham." [20] [8]: 91

Lincolns forutsigelser

I følge Ward Hill Lamon, tre dager før hans død, fortalte Lincoln en drøm der han vandret i Det hvite hus på jakt etter kilden til sørgende lyder:

Jeg fortsatte til jeg kom til East Room, som jeg kom inn på. Der møtte jeg en kvalmende overraskelse. Før meg var en katafalque, hvorpå et hvile lik pakket inn i begravelsesplagg. Rundt det var stasjonerte soldater som opptrådte som vakter, og det var en mengde mennesker som stirret sørgende på liket, hvis ansikt var dekket, andre gråt ynkelig. "Hvem er død i Det hvite hus?" Jeg krevde en av soldatene: "Presidenten" var svaret hans "han ble drept av en leiemorder." [21]

Imidlertid fortsatte Lincoln med å fortelle Lamon at "I denne drømmen var det ikke meg, men en annen fyr som ble drept. Det ser ut til at denne spøkelsesmorderen prøvde seg på noen andre." [22] [23] Paranormal etterforsker Joe Nickell skriver at drømmer om attentat i utgangspunktet ikke ville være uventet, med tanke på Baltimore -plottet og et ekstra attentatforsøk der et hull ble skutt gjennom Lincolns hatt. [22]

I flere måneder hadde Lincoln sett blek og sliten ut, men på attentatmorgenen fortalte han folk hvor glad han var. First Lady Mary Todd Lincoln følte at slik prat kunne bringe uflaks. [24]: 346 Lincoln fortalte sitt kabinett at han hadde drømt om å være på et "entydig og ubeskrivelig fartøy som beveget seg med stor fart mot en mørk og ubestemt strand", og at han hadde hatt den samme drømmen før "nesten alle store og viktig hendelse i krigen "som seirene på Antietam, Murfreesboro, Gettysburg og Vicksburg. [25]

14. april startet Booths morgen ved midnatt. Han skrev til moren at alt var bra, men at han hadde "hastverk". I dagboken skrev han at "Vår sak er nesten tapt, noe avgjørende og stort må gjøres ". [13]: 728 [24]: 346

Mens han besøkte Fords teater rundt middagstid for å hente posten hans, lærte Booth at Lincoln og Grant skulle se Vår amerikanske fetter der den kvelden. Dette ga ham en spesielt god mulighet til å angripe Lincoln siden han, etter å ha opptrådt der flere ganger, kjente teaterets oppsett og var kjent for personalet. [12]: 12 [8]: 108–9 Han dro til pensjonatet til Mary Surratt i Washington, DC, og ba henne levere en pakke til tavernaen i Surrattsville, Maryland. Han ba henne også om å be leieren Louis J. Weichmann om å gjøre klar våpen og ammunisjon som Booth tidligere hadde lagret på tavernaen. [12]: 19

Konspiratorene møttes for siste gang klokken 20.45. Booth tildelte Lewis Powell å drepe utenriksminister William H. Seward hjemme hos ham, George Atzerodt til å drepe visepresident Andrew Johnson på Kirkwood Hotel, og David E. Herold for å veilede Powell (som ikke var kjent med Washington) til Seward -huset og deretter til et møte med Booth i Maryland.

John Wilkes Booth var det eneste kjente medlemmet av konspirasjonen. Det er sannsynlig at han rimelig (men til slutt, feilaktig) antok at inngangen til presidentboksen ville bli bevoktet og at han ville være den eneste plotteren med en sannsynlig sjanse til å få tilgang til presidenten, eller i det minste for å få adgang til boksen uten å bli søkt etter våpen først. Booth planla å skyte Lincoln på tomt hold med sin enkeltskudd Deringer og deretter stikke Grant på Fords teater. De skulle alle slå til samtidig like etter klokken ti. [8]: 112 Atzerodt prøvde å trekke seg fra tomten, som til dette punktet bare hadde involvert kidnapping, ikke drap, men Booth presset ham til å fortsette. [7]: 212

Lincoln ankommer teatret

Til tross for det Booth hadde hørt tidligere på dagen, hadde Grant og kona, Julia Grant, nektet å følge med på Lincolns, ettersom Mary Lincoln og Julia Grant ikke hadde det bra. [26]: 45 [b] Andre på rad avviste også Lincolns invitasjon, til endelig major Henry Rathbone og hans forlovede Clara Harris (datter av New York senator Ira Harris) takket ja. [12]: 32 På et tidspunkt utviklet Mary Lincoln hodepine og var tilbøyelig til å bli hjemme, men Lincoln fortalte henne at han måtte delta fordi aviser hadde kunngjort at han ville. [28] Lincolns fotmann, William H. Crook, rådet ham til ikke å gå, men Lincoln sa at han hadde lovet sin kone. [29] Lincoln sa til Speaker of the House Schuyler Colfax, "Jeg antar at det er på tide å gå, selv om jeg helst vil bli" før jeg hjelper Mary inn i vognen.

Presidentpartiet ankom sent og slo seg ned i boksen sin (to tilstøtende esker med en delende skille fjernet). Stykket ble avbrutt, og orkesteret spilte "Hail to the Chief" da hele huset på rundt 1700 steg i applaus. [30] Lincoln satt i en gyngestol som var valgt for ham blant Ford -familiens personlige møbler. [31] [32]

Rollelisten endret en linje i stykket til ære for Lincoln: da heltinnen ba om et sete beskyttet mot utkastet, var svaret - "Vel, du er ikke den eneste som ønsker å unnslippe utkastet" - levert i stedet som "Utkastet er allerede stoppet etter ordre fra presidenten!" [33] Et medlem av publikum observerte at Mary Lincoln ofte rettet ektemannens oppmerksomhet til aspekter ved handlingen på scenen, og "syntes å ha stor glede av å være vitne til hans nytelse." [34]

På et tidspunkt hvisket Mary Lincoln til Lincoln, som holdt henne i hånden, "Hva vil frøken Harris synes om at jeg henger med deg?" Lincoln svarte: "Hun vil ikke tenke noe om det". [12]: 39 I årene som fulgte ble disse ordene tradisjonelt ansett som Lincolns siste, selv om N.W. Miner, en familievenn, hevdet i 1882 at Mary Lincoln fortalte ham at Lincolns siste ord uttrykte et ønske om å besøke Jerusalem. [35]

Booth skyter Lincoln

Da Crook var uten tjeneste og Ward Hill Lamon borte, fikk politimannen John Frederick Parker beskjed om å vokte presidentens boks. [36] I pausen dro han til en taverna i nærheten sammen med Lincolns betjent, Charles Forbes og trener Francis Burke. Det var også den samme kroen Booth ventet på ved å ha flere drinker for å forberede tiden. Det er uklart om han kom tilbake til teatret, men han var absolutt ikke på stillingen da Booth kom inn i boksen. [37] Uansett er det ingen sikkerhet for at adgang ville ha blitt nektet for en kjendis som Booth. Booth hadde forberedt en bøyle for å sperre døren etter å ha kommet inn i boksen, noe som indikerte at han forventet en vakt. Etter å ha tilbrakt tid i salongen, gikk Booth inn i Ford's Theatre en siste gang klokken 22.10, denne gangen, gjennom teaterets inngang. Han gikk gjennom klesirkelen og gikk til døren som førte til presidentboksen etter å ha vist Charles Forbes telefonkortet sitt. Marinekirurg George Brainerd Todd så Booth ankomme: [38]

Rundt klokken 22.25 kom en mann inn og gikk sakte langs siden som "Pres" -boksen var på, og jeg hørte en mann si "There's Booth", og jeg snudde hodet for å se på ham. Han gikk fremdeles veldig sakte og var i nærheten av boksedøra da han stoppet, tok et kort fra lommen, skrev noe på det og ga det til håndmakeren som tok det med i esken. På et minutt ble døren åpnet og han gikk inn.

Vel inne i gangen barrikaderte Booth døren ved å kile en pinne mellom den og veggen. Herfra førte en andre dør til Lincolns boks. Det er bevis på at Booth tidligere på dagen hadde lei et kikkhull i denne andre døren, selv om dette ikke er sikkert. [39] [40]: 173

Booth kjente stykket utenat og ventet på å ta sitt skudd omtrent klokken 22.15, med latteren på en av de morsomme linjene i stykket, levert av skuespilleren Harry Hawk: "Vel, jeg antar at jeg vet nok til å snu deg inne. ut, gamle gal du sockdologizing gamle mann-felle! ". Lincoln lo av denne linjen [41]: 96 da Booth åpnet døren, gikk frem og skjøt Lincoln bakfra med en derringer. [2]

Kulen gikk inn i Lincolns hodeskalle bak venstre øre, passerte gjennom hjernen hans og kom til å hvile nær fronten av skallen etter å ha brukket begge baneplatene. [c] [44] Lincoln falt ned i stolen og falt deretter bakover. [46] [47] Rathbone snudde seg for å se Booth stå i våpenrøyke mindre enn fire fot bak Lincoln Booth ropte et ord som Rathbone syntes hørtes ut som "Frihet!" [48]

Booth rømmer

Rathbone hoppet fra setet og slet med Booth, som droppet pistolen og trakk en kniv, som han stakk Rathbone med i venstre underarm. Rathbone tok igjen tak i Booth da Booth forberedte seg på å hoppe fra esken til scenen, en tolv foters fall [49] Booths ridespor ble viklet inn på statskassen som dekorerte esken, og han landet vanskelig på venstre fot. Da han begynte å krysse scenen, trodde mange i publikum at han var en del av stykket.

Booth holdt den blodige kniven over hodet og ropte noe til publikum. Selv om det tradisjonelt antas at Booth ropte mottoet i delstaten Virginia, Sic semper tyrannis! ("Dermed alltid til tyranner") enten fra boksen eller scenen, er vitnekontoer i konflikt. [13]: 739 Mest husket hørsel Sic semper tyrannis! men andre - inkludert Booth selv - sa at han bare ropte Sic semper! [50] [51] (Noen husket ikke at Booth sa noe på latin.) Det er lignende usikkerhet om hva Booth ropte videre, på engelsk: enten "The South is hevn!", [12]: 48 "Revenge for the South ! ", eller" Sørlandet skal være fritt! " (To vitner husket Booths ord som: "Jeg har gjort det!")

Umiddelbart etter at Booth landet på scenen, klatret major Joseph B. Stewart over orkestergraven og fotlysene og forfulgte Booth over scenen. [49] Skrikene til Mary Lincoln og Clara Harris, og Rathbones rop om "Stopp den mannen!" [12]: 49 fikk andre til å bli med på jakten da pandemonium brøt ut.

Booth løp over scenen og gikk ut gjennom en sidedør, underveis som stakkende orkesterleder William Withers, Jr. [52] [53] Han hadde forlatt en hest i smuget. Da han hoppet inn i salen, skjøt Booth vekk Joseph Burroughs, [d] som hadde holdt hesten og slo Burroughs med håndtaket på kniven. [54] [55] [56] [1]

Lincoln død

Charles Leale, en ung hærkirurg, dyttet gjennom mengden til døren til Lincolns boks, men klarte ikke å åpne den før Rathbone, innvendig, la merke til og fjernet trebøylen som Booth hadde stengt døren med. [8]: 120

Leale fant Lincoln sittende med hodet lent til høyre [43] da Mary holdt ham og hulket: "Øynene hans var lukkede og han var i en dyp koma, mens pusten var periodisk og ekstremt stertøs." [57] [58] Da han trodde Lincoln hadde blitt knivstukket, flyttet Leale ham til gulvet. I mellomtiden ble en annen lege, Charles Sabin Taft, løftet inn i esken fra scenen.

Etter at tilskuer William Kent og Leale kuttet bort Lincolns krage mens de løsnet Lincolns kåpe og skjorte og fant ingen knivstikk, fant Leale skuddskadet bak venstre øre. Han fant kulen for dyp for å bli fjernet, men løsnet en blodpropp, hvoretter Lincolns pust ble bedre [8]: 121–2 han lærte at regelmessig fjerning av nye blodpropper opprettholdt Lincolns pust. Etter å ha gitt Lincoln kunstig åndedrett, tillot Dr. Leale skuespilleren Laura Keene å vugge presidentens hode i fanget hennes, og han uttalte såret dødelig. [12]: 78

Leale, Taft og en annen lege, Albert King, bestemte at Lincoln måtte flyttes til nærmeste hus på Tenth Street fordi en vogntur til Det hvite hus var for farlig. Forsiktig, syv menn plukket opp Lincoln og bar ham sakte ut av teatret, hvor det var fullpakket med en sint mobb. Etter å ha vurdert Peter Taltavulls Star Saloon ved siden av, konkluderte de med at de ville ta Lincoln til et av husene over veien. Det regnet da soldater bar Lincoln inn i gaten, [59] hvor en mann oppfordret dem mot huset til skredder William Petersen. [60] I Petersens soverom i første etasje ble den eksepsjonelt høye Lincoln lagt diagonalt på en liten seng. [8]: 123–4

Etter å ha ryddet alle ut av rommet, inkludert fru Lincoln, kuttet legene Lincoln's klær, men fant ingen andre sår som fant ut at Lincoln var kald, de påførte varmtvannsflasker og sennepsplaster mens de dekket den kalde kroppen hans med tepper. Senere ankom flere leger: generalkirurg Joseph K. Barnes, Charles Henry Crane, Anderson Ruffin Abbott og Robert K. Stone (Lincolns personlige lege). Alle var enige om at Lincoln ikke kunne overleve. Barnes undersøkte såret og fant kula og noen beinfragmenter. I løpet av natten, mens blødningen fortsatte, fjernet de blodpropper for å avlaste trykket på hjernen, [62] og Leale holdt den komatiske presidentens hånd med et fast grep, "for å la ham få vite at han var i kontakt med menneskeheten og hadde en venn. " [8]: 14 [63]

Lincolns eldre sønn Robert Todd Lincoln ankom omtrent klokken 23.00, men tolv år gamle Tad Lincoln, som så på et skuespill av "Aladdin”På Grover's Theatre da han fikk vite om sin fars attentat på Ford's Theatre, ble holdt borte. Sekretær for marinen Gideon Welles og krigsminister Edwin M. Stanton ankom. Stanton insisterte på at den hulkende Mary Lincoln forlot sykerommet, og resten av natten drev han i hovedsak USAs regjering fra huset, inkludert å lede jakten på Booth og de andre konspiratorene. [8]: 127–8 Vakter holdt offentligheten borte, men mange tjenestemenn og leger ble tatt opp for å vise respekt. [62]

Opprinnelig var Lincolns trekk rolige og pusten langsom og stabil. Senere ble et av øynene hans hovent, og høyre side av ansiktet hans ble misfarget. [64] Maunsell Bradhurst Field skrev i et brev til New York Times at presidenten deretter begynte å "puste regelmessig, men med innsats, og ikke så ut til å slite eller lide." [65] [66] Da han nærmet seg døden, ble Lincolns utseende "helt naturlig" [65] (bortsett fra misfarging rundt øynene). [67] Rett før klokken 7 fikk Mary lov til å vende tilbake til Lincolns side, [68] og, som Dixon rapporterte, "satte hun seg igjen ved presidenten, kysset ham og kalte ham hvert kjærlige navn." [69]

Lincoln døde klokken 07.22 15. april. [3] Mary Lincoln var ikke til stede. [70] [71] I de siste øyeblikkene hans ble Lincolns ansikt rolig og pusten roligere. [72] Field skrev at det var "ingen tilsynelatende lidelse, ingen krampaktige handlinger, ingen rasling i halsen. [Bare] bare å stoppe pusten". [65] [66] Ifølge Lincolns sekretær John Hay, i øyeblikket av Lincolns død, kom "et blikk av usigelig fred over hans slitte trekk". [73] Forsamlingen knelte for en bønn, hvoretter Stanton sa enten "Nå tilhører han tidene" eller "Nå tilhører han englene." [8]: 134 [74]

Ved Lincolns død ble visepresident Johnson den 17. presidenten, og ble sverget inn av Chief Justice Salmon Chase mellom klokken 10 og 11 [75]

Booth hadde tildelt Lewis Powell å drepe utenriksminister William H. Seward. Natten til attentatet var Seward hjemme i Lafayette Park, innestengt i sengen og kom seg etter skader som ble påført 5. april etter å ha blitt kastet fra vognen. Herold guidet Powell til Sewards hus. Powell bar en Whitney -revolver fra 1858 (en stor, tung og populær pistol under borgerkrigen) og en Bowie -kniv.

William Bell, Sewards maître d ’, svarte på døren da Powell banket 22.10, da Booth tok seg til presidentkassen på Fords teater. Powell fortalte Bell at han hadde medisin fra Sewards lege og at instruksjonene hans var å personlig vise Seward hvordan han skulle ta det. Etter å ha overvunnet Bells skepsis tok Powell seg opp trappene til Sewards soverom i tredje etasje. [12]: 54 [13]: 736 [76] På toppen av trappen ble han stoppet av Sewards sønn, assisterende statssekretær Frederick W. Seward, som han gjentok medisinhistorien Frederick, mistenksom, sa at faren hans var sover.

Da han hørte stemmer, kom Sewards datter Fanny ut av Sewards rom og sa: "Fred, far er våken nå" - og avslørte dermed for Powell hvor Seward var. Powell snudde seg som for å begynne nede, men plutselig snudde han igjen og tegnet revolveren. Han siktet mot pannen til Frederick og trakk i avtrekkeren, men pistolen slo feil, så han slo Frederick bevisstløs med den. Bell, som ropte "Mord! Mord!", Løp utenfor for å få hjelp.

Fanny åpnet døren igjen, og Powell stakk forbi henne til Sewards seng. Han stakk i ansiktet og på halsen på Seward og åpnet kinnet. [12]: 58 Imidlertid forhindret skinnen (ofte feilaktig beskrevet som en nakkebøyle) som legene hadde montert på Sewards knuste kjeve bladet fra å trenge inn i halsvenen. [13]: 737 Han kom seg til slutt, men med alvorlige arr i ansiktet.

Sewards sønn Augustus og sersjant George F. Robinson, en soldat som ble tildelt Seward, ble varslet av Fannys skrik og mottok knivstikk i kamp med Powell. Da Augustus gikk for en pistol, løp Powell nedover mot døren, [77]: 275 hvor han møtte Emerick Hansell, en utenriksdepartementets sendebud. [78] [79] Powell stakk Hansell i ryggen, løp deretter utenfor og utbrøt "Jeg er gal! Jeg er sint!". Skrik fra huset hadde skremt Herold, som stakk av og forlot Powell for å finne sin egen vei i en ukjent by. [12]: 59

Booth hadde tildelt George Atzerodt å drepe visepresident Andrew Johnson, som bodde på Kirkwood House i Washington. Atzerodt skulle gå til Johnsons rom klokken 22.15. og skyte ham. [13]: 735 14. april leide Atzerodt rommet rett over Johnsons neste dag, han ankom det til fastsatt tid og gikk med en pistol og kniv til baren nede, hvor han spurte bartenderen om Johnsons karakter og oppførsel. Til slutt ble han full og vandret av gårde og kastet kniven bort på et tidspunkt. Han tok seg til Pennsylvania House Hotel ved 2 -tiden, hvor han skaffet seg et rom og sovnet. [8]: 166–7 [77]: 335

Tidligere på dagen hadde Booth vært innom Kirkwood House og lagt igjen en lapp til Johnson: "Jeg ønsker ikke å forstyrre deg. Er du hjemme? J. Wilkes Booth." [76] En teori mener at Booth prøvde å finne ut om Johnson var forventet på Kirkwood den kvelden [8]: 111 en annen mener at Booth, bekymret for at Atzerodt ikke ville drepe Johnson, hadde til hensikt at lappen skulle implisere Johnson i konspirasjonen . [80]

Lincoln ble sørget i både nord og sør, [77]: 350 og faktisk rundt om i verden. [81] Mange utenlandske regjeringer utstedte proklamasjoner og erklærte perioder med sorg 15. april. [82] [83] Lincoln ble rost i prekener påskedag, som falt dagen etter hans død. [77]: 357

Den 18. april stilte sørgende opp syv sammen i en kilometer for å se Lincoln i valnøttkisten hans i Det hvite hus s svart-draperte østrom. Spesialtog tok med seg tusenvis fra andre byer, hvorav noen sov på Capitols plen. [84]: 120–3 Hundretusener så på begravelsesprosessen 19. april, [12]: 213 og flere millioner foret linjen på 1.700 mil (2.700 km) for toget som tok Lincolns rester gjennom New York til Springfield, Illinois , ofte passerer hyllest ved sporene i form av band, bål og salmesang. [85]: 31–58 [41]: 231–8

Ulysses S. Grant kalte Lincoln "ubestridelig den største mannen jeg noen gang har kjent." [13]: 747 Robert E. Lee uttrykte tristhet. [88] Sørfødte Elizabeth Blair sa at "De fra sørfødte sympatier vet nå at de har mistet en venn som er villig og mektigere til å beskytte og tjene dem enn de nå noen gang kan håpe å finne igjen." [13]: 744 afroamerikansk taler Frederick Douglass kalte attentatet en "usigelig ulykke". [88]

Den britiske utenriksminister Lord Russell kalte Lincolns død en "trist ulykke". [83] Kinas statssekretær for utenrikssaker, prins Kung, beskrev seg selv som "ubeskrivelig sjokkert og forskrekket". [82] Ecuadors president Gabriel Garcia Moreno sa: "Aldri skulle jeg ha trodd at edellandet Washington ville bli ydmyket av en så svart og fryktelig kriminalitet, og jeg skulle heller aldri ha trodd at Lincoln ville komme til en så fryktelig slutt, etter å ha tjent sitt land med slik visdom og ære under så kritiske omstendigheter. " [82] [83] Regjeringen i Liberia utstedte en proklamasjon som kalte Lincoln "ikke bare herskeren over sitt eget folk, men en far til millioner av raser rammet og undertrykt." [83] Haiti -regjeringen fordømte attentatet som en "fryktelig forbrytelse." [83]

Booth og Herold

Innen en halv time etter å ha flyktet fra Fords teater, krysset Booth Navy Yard Bridge til Maryland. [12]: 67–8 En hærvakt spurte ham om hans reise om kvelden Booth sa at han skulle hjem til byen Charles i nærheten. Selv om det var forbudt for sivile å krysse broen etter 21.00, lot vaktposten ham komme igjennom. [89] David Herold kom seg over den samme broen mindre enn en time senere [12]: 81-2 og møtte Booth. [12]: 87 Etter å ha hentet våpen og forsyninger som tidligere var lagret i Surattsville, red Herold og Booth til hjemmet til Samuel A. Mudd, en lokal lege, som splintet beinet [12]: 131 153 Booth hadde brutt i flukten, og senere laget et par krykker til Booth. [12]: 131 153

Etter en dag hjemme hos Mudd leide Booth og Herold en lokal mann for å veilede dem til Samuel Cox hus. [12]: 163 Cox tok dem på sin side til Thomas Jones, en konføderert sympatisør som gjemte Booth og Herold i Zekiah Swamp i fem dager til de kunne krysse Potomac -elven. [12]: 224 På ettermiddagen 24. april ankom de gården til Richard H. Garrett, en tobakksbonde, i King George County, Virginia. Booth fortalte Garrett at han var en såret konføderert soldat.

Et brev fra 15. april til marinekirurg George Brainerd Todd fra broren forteller om ryktene i Washington om Booth:

I dag sørger hele byen for nesten hvert hus som er i svart, og jeg har ikke sett et smil, ingen forretninger og mange en sterk mann jeg har sett i tårer - Noen rapporter sier at Booth er en fange, andre at han har flyktet - men fra ordre mottatt her, tror jeg at han er tatt, og i løpet av natten vil bli satt på en monitor for å oppbevare det - ettersom en mobb som en gang var reist nå, ikke ville vite noen ende. [38]

The hunt for the conspirators quickly became the largest in U.S. history, involving thousands of federal troops and countless civilians. Edwin M. Stanton personally directed the operation, [90] authorizing rewards of $50,000 (equivalent to $800,000 in 2020) for Booth and $25,000 each for Herold and John Surratt. [91]

Booth and Herold were sleeping at Garrett's farm on April 26 when soldiers from the 16th New York Cavalry arrived and surrounded the barn, then threatened to set fire to it. Herold surrendered, but Booth cried out, "I will not be taken alive!" [12] : 326 The soldiers set fire to the barn [12] : 331 and Booth scrambled for the back door with a rifle and pistol.

Sergeant Boston Corbett crept up behind the barn and shot Booth in "the back of the head about an inch below the spot where his [Booth's] shot had entered the head of Mr. Lincoln", [92] severing his spinal cord. [12] : 335 Booth was carried out onto the steps of the barn. A soldier poured water into his mouth, which he spat out, unable to swallow. Booth told the soldier, "Tell my mother I die for my country." Unable to move his limbs, he asked a soldier to lift his hands before his face and whispered his last words as he gazed at them: "Useless . useless." He died on the porch of the Garrett farm two hours later. [12] : 336–40 [76] Corbett was initially arrested for disobeying orders but was later released and was largely considered a hero by the media and the public. [41] : 228

Others

Without Herold to guide him, Powell did not find his way back to the Surratt house until April 17. He told detectives waiting there that he was a ditch-digger hired by Mary Surratt, but she denied knowing him. Both were arrested. [8] : 174–9 George Atzerodt hid at his cousin's farm in Germantown, Maryland, about 25 miles (40 km) northwest of Washington, where he was arrested April 20. [8] : 169

The remaining conspirators were arrested by month's end – except for John Surratt, who fled to Quebec where Roman Catholic priests hid him. In September, he boarded a ship to Liverpool, England, staying in the Catholic Church of the Holy Cross there. From there, he moved furtively through Europe until joining the Pontifical Zouaves in the Papal States. A friend from his school days recognized him there in early 1866 and alerted the U.S. government. Surratt was arrested by the Papal authorities but managed to escape under suspicious circumstances. He was finally captured by an agent of the United States in Egypt in November 1866. [93]

Scores of persons were arrested, including many tangential associates of the conspirators and anyone having had even the slightest contact with Booth or Herold during their flight. These included Louis J. Weichmann, a boarder in Mrs. Surratt's house Booth's brother Junius (in Cincinnati at the time of the assassination) theater owner John T. Ford James Pumphrey, from whom Booth hired his horse John M. Lloyd, the innkeeper who rented Mrs. Surratt's Maryland tavern and gave Booth and Herold weapons and supplies the night of April 14 and Samuel Cox and Thomas A. Jones, who helped Booth and Herold cross the Potomac. [84] : 186–8 All were eventually released except: [84] : 188

The accused were tried by a military tribunal ordered by Johnson, who had succeeded to the presidency on Lincoln's death:

    David Hunter (presiding)
  • Maj. Gen. Lew WallaceRobert Sanford Foster
  • Brev. Maj. Gen. Thomas Maley Harris
  • Brig. Gen. Albion P. Howe
  • Brig. Gen. August KautzJames A. Ekin
  • Col. Charles H. TompkinsDavid Ramsay Clendenin

The prosecution was led by U.S. Army Judge Advocate General Joseph Holt, assisted by Congressman John A. Bingham and Major Henry Lawrence Burnett. [94]

The use of a military tribunal provoked criticism from Edward Bates and Gideon Welles, who believed that a civil court should have presided, but Attorney General James Speed pointed to the military nature of the conspiracy and the facts that the defendants acted as enemy combatants and that martial law was in force at the time in the District of Columbia. (In 1866, in Ex parte Milligan, the United States Supreme Court banned the use of military tribunals in places where civil courts were operational.) [8] : 213–4 Only a simple majority of the jury was required for a guilty verdict and a two-thirds for a death sentence. There was no route for appeal other than to President Johnson. [8] : 222–3

The seven-week trial included the testimony of 366 witnesses. All of the defendants were found guilty on June 30. Mary Surratt, Lewis Powell, David Herold, and George Atzerodt were sentenced to death by hanging Samuel Mudd, Samuel Arnold, and Michael O'Laughlen were sentenced to life in prison. [95] Edmund Spangler was sentenced to six years. After sentencing Mary Surratt to hang, five jurors signed a letter recommending clemency, but Johnson refused to stop the execution he later claimed he never saw the letter. [8] : 227

Mary Surratt, Powell, Herold, and Atzerodt were hanged in the Old Arsenal Penitentiary on July 7. [12] : 362,365 Mary Surratt was the first woman executed by the United States government. [96] O'Laughlen died in prison in 1867. Mudd, Arnold, and Spangler were pardoned in February 1869 by Johnson. [12] : 367 Spangler, who died in 1875, always insisted his sole connection to the plot was that Booth asked him to hold his horse.

John Surratt stood trial in Washington in 1867. Four residents of Elmira, New York, [12] : 27 [97] : 125,132,136–7 [98] : 112–5 claimed they had seen him there between April 13 and 15 fifteen others said they either saw him or someone who resembled him, in Washington (or traveling to or from Washington) on the day of the assassination. The jury could not reach a verdict, and John Surratt was released. [8] : 178 [97] : 132–3,138 [99] : 227


The Robert Moss BLOG


What is interesting here is not only the public recording of an important presidential dream but the public disclosure of the method Lincoln used in his attempt to disprove the dream - randomly seeking an answer to the question of the truth of the dream in the pages of the Bible. Lincoln admitted being haunted by the dream and began to seek - rather desperately - for an opposite confirmation from a source he perceived as equally as powerful and magical as the dream. The more seemingly random games he played of opening the Bible and pointing at what lay before him, hoping for a message that denied his dream, the more confirmation he had that his dream was real and as terrifying as it appeared. Confirmation of the truth of dreaming and of the terrible potential truth of this dream in particular froze Lincoln into realizing the dream's fateful end rather than spurring him into working out a different outcome.

Hi Wanda - Yes, the Lincoln assassination dream is well-known and we frequently see a quote from his remarks about dreams in the Bible. But the biographies and books on dreams rarely focus on how he was practicing bibliomancy - using the Bible as his oracle book in the same way as wise women in Appalachia used their "sators" - to get a reading. Your observation that he may have been "frozen" by a sense of fatality from the dream, backed by the Bible, may be spot-on.

Whatever our dreams may seem to portend, I am a great believer in the idea that dreams show us the possible future rather than the predestined future, and that we should always seek to change future events perceived in this way for the better if we don't like 'em. I wrote a whole book on this theme, "Dreaming True".

How appropriate that your original post was posted at 7:22 am - the time on April 15, 1865 when Lincoln died!

I'm reading 'Team of Rivals' which vaguely challenged Lamon's account which got me researching the whole tale. Inconsistencies and external evidence regarding Lamon's account makes one question whether this dream ever took place. Lamon claimed that the incident occurred a few days prior to the assassination, yet Lincoln is supposeed to have said the dream occurred "the other night." From March 24 to April 9, he in fact had been at the front, rather than in the White House. As well, there was no contemporaneous account of the dream following the assassination. No one mentioned it in the voluminous writings of the period, not Mary Lincoln, Lamon, anyone else at the supposed telling of the dream, or anyone to whom those who heard it may have relayed it.

Interesting, that he may had dreamed this dream "away from the White House", as it is my experience that prophetic dreams often come when one is sleeping in a strange place/bed, as opposed to their own familiar surroundings. Love that this blog was posted at the same time of the (dreaded) assassination. We live in a magical world!


The Night Abraham Lincoln Was Assassinated

Good Friday, April 14, 1865, was surely one of Abraham Lincoln’s happiest days. The morning began with a leisurely breakfast in the company of his son Robert, just arrived in Washington after serving on General Grant’s staff. “Well, my son, you have returned safely from the front,” Lincoln said. “The war is now closed, and we soon will live in peace with the brave men that have been fighting against us.” He urged Robert to “lay aside” his Army uniform and finish his education, perhaps in preparation for a law career. As the father imparted his advice, Mary Lincoln’s seamstress, Elizabeth Keckley, observed, “His face was more cheerful than [she] had seen it for a long while.”

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At 11 a.m., Grant arrived at the White House to attend the regularly scheduled Friday cabinet meeting. He had hoped for word that Gen. Joseph E. Johnston’s army, the last substantial Rebel force remaining, had surrendered in North Carolina, but no news had yet arrived. Lincoln told Grant not to worry. He predicted that the tidings would come soon, “for he had last night the usual dream which he had preceding nearly every great and important event of the War.” Gideon Welles asked him to describe the dream. Turning toward him, Lincoln said it involved the Navy secretary’s “element, the water—that he seemed to be in some singular, indescribable vessel, and that he was moving with great rapidity towards an indefinite shore that he had this dream preceding Sumter, Bull Run, Antietam, Gettysburg, Stone River, Vicksburg, Wilmington, etc.” Grant remarked that not all those great events had been victories, but Lincoln remained hopeful that this time this event would be favorable.

The complexities of re-establishing law and order in the Southern states dominated the conversation. A few days earlier, War Secretary Edwin Stanton had drafted a plan for imposing a temporary military government on Virginia and North Carolina, until the restoration of civilian rule. “Lincoln alluded to the paper,” Stanton later recalled, “went into his room, brought it out and asked me to read it.” A general discussion revealed that most of the cabinet concurred, although Welles and Postmaster General William Dennison objected to the idea of undoing state boundaries by uniting two different states into a single military department. Recognizing the validity of this objection, Lincoln asked Stanton to revise his plan to make it applicable to two separate states.

Team of Rivals: The Political Genius of Abraham Lincoln

Acclaimed historian Doris Kearns Goodwin illuminates Lincoln's political genius in this highly original work, as the one-term congressman and prairie lawyer rises from obscurity to prevail over three gifted rivals of national reputation to become president.

Lincoln said that “he thought it providential that this great rebellion was crushed just as Congress had adjourned,” since he and the cabinet were more likely to “accomplish more without them than with them” regarding Reconstruction. He noted that “there were men in Congress who, if their motives were good, were nevertheless impracticable, and who possessed feelings of hate and vindictiveness in which he did not sympathize and could not participate. He hoped there would be no persecution, no bloody work, after the war was over.”

As for the Rebel leaders, Lincoln reiterated his resolve to perpetrate no further violence: “None need expect he would take any part in hanging or killing those men, even the worst of them.” While their continued presence on American soil might prove troublesome, he preferred to “frighten them out of the country, open the gates, let down the bars, scare them off.” To illustrate his point, he shook “his hands as if scaring sheep,” and said, “Enough lives have been sacrificed. We must extinguish our resentments if we expect harmony and union.”

After the cabinet meeting, Stanton and Attorney General James Speed descended the stairs together. “Didn’t our Chief look grand today?” Stanton asked. Years later, Speed held fast “to the memory of Lincoln’s personal appearance” that day, “with cleanly-shaved face, well-brushed clothing and neatly-combed hair and whiskers,” a marked contrast to his usual rumpled aspect. Stanton later wrote that Lincoln seemed “more cheerful and happy” than at any previous cabinet meeting, thrilled by “the near prospect of firm and durable peace at home and abroad.” Throughout the discussion, Stanton recalled, Lincoln “spoke very kindly of General Lee and others of the Confederacy,” exhibiting “in marked degree the kindness and humanity of his disposition, and the tender and forgiving spirit that so eminently distinguished him.”

Later that day, Lincoln put into practice his liberal policy toward the Rebel leaders. Intelligence had reached Stanton at the War Department that “a conspicuous secessionist,” Jacob Thompson, was en route to Portland, Maine, where a steamer awaited to take him to England. Operating from Canada, Thompson had organized a series of troublesome raids across the border that left Stanton with little sympathy for the Confederate marauder. Upon reading the telegram, Stanton did not hesitate a moment. “Arrest him!” he ordered Assistant Secretary Charles Dana. As Dana was leaving the room, however, Stanton called him back. “No, wait better to go over and see the President.”

Dana found Lincoln in his office. “Halloo, Dana!” Lincoln greeted him. “What’s up?” Dana described the situation, explaining that Stanton wanted to arrest Thompson but thought he should first “refer the question” to Lincoln. “Well,” said Lincoln, “no, I rather think not. When you have got an elephant by the hind leg, and he’s trying to run away, it’s best to let him run.”

Mary Lincoln’s memories of her husband’s infectious happiness that day match the recollections of his inner circle. She had never seen him so “cheerful,” she told the painter Francis Carpenter, “his manner was even playful. At 3 o’clock, in the afternoon, he drove out with me in the open carriage, in starting, I asked him, if any one, should accompany us, he immediately replied—‘No—I prefer to ride by ourselves to day.’ During the drive he was so gay, that I said to him, laughingly, ‘Dear Husband, you almost startle me by your great cheerfulness,’ he replied, ‘and well I may feel so, Mary, I consider this day, the war, has come to a close—and then added, ‘We must both, be more cheerful in the future—between the war & the loss of our darling Willie—we have both, been very miserable.’”

As the carriage rolled toward the Navy Yard, Mary recalled, “he spoke of his old Springfield home, and recollections of his early days, his little brown cottage, the law office, the courtroom, the green bag for his briefs and law papers, his adventures when riding the circuit.” They had traveled an unimaginable distance together since their first dance in Springfield a quarter of a century earlier. Over the years, they had supported each other, irritated each other, shared a love of family, politics, poetry and drama. Mary’s descent into depression after their son Willie’s death had added immeasurably to Lincoln’s burdens, and the terrible pressures of the war had further distorted their relationship. His intense focus on his presidential responsibilities had often left her feeling abandoned and resentful. Now, with the war coming to an end and time bringing solace to their grief, the Lincolns could plan for a happier future. They hoped to travel someday—to Europe and the Holy Land, over the Rockies to California, then back home to Illinois, where their life together had begun.

As the carriage neared the White House, Lincoln saw that a group of old friends, including Illinois Gov. Richard Oglesby, were just leaving. “Come back, boys, come back,” he told them, relishing the relaxing company of friends. They remained for some time, Oglesby recalled. “Lincoln got to reading some humorous book I think it was by ‘John Phoenix.’ They kept sending for him to come to dinner. He promised each time to go, but would continue reading the book. Finally he got a sort of peremptory order that he must come to dinner at once.”

The early dinner was necessary, for the Lincolns had plans to see Laura Keene in Our American Cousin at Ford’s Theatre that evening. After supper, the president met with journalist Noah Brooks, Massachusetts Congressman George Ashmun and House Speaker Schuyler Colfax, who was soon to depart for California. “How I would rejoice to make that trip!” Lincoln told Colfax, “but public duties chain me down here, and I can only envy you its pleasures.” The president invited Colfax to join him at the theater that night, but Colfax had too many commitments.

To Brooks, Lincoln had never seemed “more hopeful and buoyant concerning the condition of the country. He was full of fun and anecdotes, feeling especially jubilant at the prospect before us.” His parting words, Brooks recalled, focused on the country’s economic future. “Grant thinks that we can reduce the cost of the Army establishment at least a half million a day, which, with the reduction of expenditures of the Navy, will soon bring down our national debt to something like decent proportions, and bring our national paper up to a par, or nearly so with gold.”

Speaker Colfax was among several people who declined the Lincolns’ invitation to the theater that evening. The morning edition of the National Republican had announced that the Grants would join the Lincolns in the president’s box that night, but Julia Grant had her heart set on visiting their children in New Jersey, so Grant asked to be excused. The Stantons also declined. Stanton considered the theater a foolish diversion and, more important, a dangerous one. He had fought a losing battle for months to keep the president from such public places, and he felt that his presence would only sanction an unnecessary hazard. Earlier that day, “unwilling to encourage the theater project,” Stanton had refused to let his chief telegrapher, Thomas Eckert, accept Lincoln’s invitation, even though the president had teasingly requested him for his uncommon strength—he had been known to “break a poker over his arm” and could serve as a bodyguard.

It was after 8 when the Lincolns entered their carriage to drive to the theater. “I suppose it’s time to go,” Lincoln told Colfax, “though I would rather stay.” While nothing had provided greater diversion during the bitter nights of his presidency than the theater, Lincoln required no escape on this happy night. Still, he had made a commitment. “It has been advertised that we will be there,” he told his bodyguard, William Crook, who had the night off, “and I cannot disappoint the people.” Clara Harris—the daughter of Mary’s friend Senator Ira Harris—and her fiancé, Maj. Henry Rathbone, joined the Lincolns in their carriage.

As the Lincolns rode to Ford’s Theatre on Tenth Street, John Wilkes Booth and three conspirators were a block away, at the Herndon House. Booth had devised a plan that called for the simultaneous assassinations of President Lincoln, Secretary of State William Henry Seward and Vice President Andrew Johnson. Having learned that morning of Lincoln’s plan to attend the theater, he had decided that this night would provide their best opportunity. The powerfully built Lewis Powell, accompanied by David Herold, was assigned to kill Seward at his Lafayette Square home. Meanwhile, the carriage maker George Atzerodt was to shoot the vice president in his suite at the Kirkwood Hotel. Booth, whose familiarity with the stagehands would ensure access, would assassinate the president.

Just as Brutus had been honored for slaying the tyrant Julius Caesar, Booth believed he would be exalted for killing an even “greater tyrant.” Assassinating Lincoln would not be enough. “Booth knew,” his biographer Michael W. Kauffman observes, “that in the end, the Brutus conspiracy was foiled by Marc Antony, whose famous oration made outlaws of the assassins and a martyr of Caesar.” William Henry Seward, Lincoln’s Marc Antony, must not live. Finally, to throw the entire North into disarray, the vice president must die as well. The triple assassinations were set for 10:15 p.m.

Still bedridden, Seward had enjoyed his best day since his nearly fatal carriage accident nine days earlier. His daughter Fanny Seward noted in her diary that he had slept well the previous night and had taken “solid food for the first time.” In the afternoon, he had “listened with a look of pleasure to the narrative of the events of the Cabinet meeting,” which Fred Seward, as assistant secretary, had attended in his father’s stead. Later in the afternoon, he had listened to Fanny’s reading of “Enoch Arden” and remarked on how much he enjoyed it.

The three-story house was full of people. The entire family, except Will and Jenny, were there—his wife, Frances, and their other children, Augustus, Fred, Anna and Fanny. In addition to the half-dozen household servants and the State Department messenger rooming on the third floor, two soldiers had been assigned by Stanton to stay with Seward. In the early evening, Stanton had stopped by to check on his friend and colleague. He stayed for a while, chatting with other visitors until martial music in the air reminded him that War Department employees had planned on serenading him that night at his home six blocks away.

After all the guests left, “the quiet arrangements for the night” began. To ensure that Seward was never left alone, the family members had taken turns sitting by his bed. That night Fanny was scheduled to stay with him until 11 p.m., when her brother Gus would relieve her. George Robinson, one of the soldiers whom Stanton had detailed to the household, was standing by. Shortly after 10 p.m., Fanny noticed that her father was falling asleep. She closed the pages of the Legends of Charlemagne, turned down the gas lamps, and took a seat on the opposite side of the bed.

Fred Seward later wrote that “there seemed nothing unusual in the occurrence, when a tall, well dressed, but unknown man presented himself” at the door. Powell told the servant who answered the bell that he had some medicine for Mr. Seward and had been instructed by his physician to deliver it in person. “I told him he could not go up,” the servant later testified, “that if he would give me the medicine, I would tell Mr. Seward how to take it.” Powell was so insistent that the boy stepped aside. When he reached the landing, Fred Seward stopped him. “My father is asleep give me the medicine and the directions I will take them to him.” Powell argued that he must deliver it in person, but Fred refused.

At this point, Fred recalled, the intruder “stood apparently irresolute.” He began to head down the stairs, then “suddenly turning again, he sprang up and forward, having drawn a Navy revolver, which he levelled, with a muttered oath, at my head, and pulled the trigger.” This was the last memory Fred would have of that night. The pistol misfired, but Powell brought it down so savagely that Fred’s skull was crushed in two places, exposing his brain and rendering him unconscious.

Hearing the disturbance, Pvt. Robinson ran to the door from Seward’s bedside. The moment the door was opened, Powell rushed inside, brandishing his now broken pistol in one hand and a large knife in the other. He slashed Robinson in the forehead with his knife, knocking him “partially down,” and headed toward Seward. Fanny ran beside Powell, begging him not to kill her father. When Seward heard the word “kill,” he awakened, affording him “one glimpse of the assassin’s face bending over” before the large bowie knife plunged into his neck and face, severing his cheek so badly that “the flap hung loose on his neck.” Oddly, he would later recall that his only impressions were what a fine-looking man Powell was and “what handsome cloth that overcoat is made of.”

Fanny’s screams brought her brother Gus into the room as Powell advanced again upon Seward, who had been knocked to the floor by the force of the blows. Gus and the injured Robinson managed to pull Powell away, but not before he struck Robinson again and slashed Gus on the forehead and the right hand. When Gus ran for his pistol, Powell bolted down the stairs, stabbing Emerick Hansell, the young State Department messenger, in the back before he bolted out the door and fled through the city streets.


Abraham Lincoln’s Prophetic Dream

According to History.com, Ward Hill Lamon, Abraham Lincoln’s former law partner, friend and sometime bodyguard—told a famous story about the 16th U.S. president’s premonition of his own death. According to the tale, just a few days before his assassination on April 14, 1865, Lincoln shared a recent dream with a small group that included his wife, Mary Todd, and Lamon. In it, he walked into the East Room of the White House to find a covered corpse guarded by soldiers and surrounded by a crowd of mourners. When Lincoln asked one of the soldiers who had died, the soldier replied, “The president. He was killed by an assassin.” (Interestingly, Lincoln supposedly later insisted to Lamon that the body on display was not his own—so he himself did not view the dream as a portent of his own demise.) Some historians have cast doubt on Lamon’s account, which was first published in the 1880s, nearly 20 years after the assassination. Though Lamon claimed to have reconstructed the incident based on notes he made in 1865, it does seem odd that neither he nor Mary Lincoln mentioned the dream right after the president’s murder.

Even if Lamon’s story isn’t true, Abraham Lincoln was apparently quite interested in the meaning of dreams and what they have to say about future events both positive and negative. Proof of his curiosity lies in an 1863 letter to his wife, who at the time was in Philadelphia with their 10-year-old son, Tad. Lincoln writes that Mary had better “put Tad’s pistol away” as he “had an ugly dream about him.” Moreover, members of Lincoln’s cabinet recalled that, on the morning of his assassination, the president told them he’d dreamed of sailing across an unknown body of water at great speed. He also apparently revealed that he’d had the same dream repeatedly on previous occasions, before “nearly every great and important event of the War.” This story again points to Lincoln’s interest in the predictive power of dreams—but it doesn’t offer hard evidence that he foresaw his own death.

There are numerous cases throughout history involving dreams that seem to predict the future:

  • After the sinking of the Titanic in 1912, hundreds of people reported that they had dreams and premonitions of the ship’s demise. Nineteen of those experiences were authenticated.
  • MLK had a dream that seemed to predict his untimely death. 3 days before his brother was killed in a riverboat accident. The details of Twain’s dream and the actual event are strikingly similar.

Dreams are powerful things! In fact, they are the most powerful part of who we are. Whether your dreams are advising you, warning you or inspiring you, they are an endless resource you can tap into every single morning… once you know their secret language! My book Dream on It will have you understanding your dreams in no time! Keep it by your bedside so you can easily figure out your dreams as soon as you wake from them. You’ll wonder why you didn’t get it sooner!

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President Lincoln dreams about his assassination - HISTORY

L incoln awoke the morning of April 14 in a pleasant mood. Robert E. Lee had surrendered several days before to Ulysses Grant, and now Lincoln was awaiting word from North Carolina on the surrender of Joseph E. Johnston. The morning papers carried the announcement that the president and his wife would be attending the comedy, Our American Cousin, at Ford's Theater that evening with General Grant and his wife.

After an afternoon carriage ride and dinner, Mary complained of a headache and considered not going after all. Lincoln commented that he was feeling a bit tired himself, but he needed a laugh and was intent on going with or without her. She relented. He made a quick trip to the War Department with his body guard, William Crook, but there was no news from North Carolina. While returning to pick up Mary, Crook "almost begged" Lincoln not to go to the theater. He then asked if he could go along as an extra guard. Lincoln rejected both suggestions, shrugging off Crook's fears of assassination. Lincoln knew that a guard would be posted outside their "state box" at the theater.

Arriving after the play had started, the two couples swept up the stairs and into their seats. The box door was closed, but not locked. As the play progressed, police guard John Parker, a notorious drinker, left his post in the hallway leading to the box and went across the street for a drink. During the third act, the President and Mrs. Lincoln drew closer together, holding hands while enjoying the play. Behind them, the door opened and a man stepped into the box. Pointing a derringer at the back of Lincoln's head, he pulled the trigger. Mary reached out to her slumping husband and began shrieking. Now wielding a dagger, the man yelled, "Sic semper tyrannis!" ("Thus always to tyrants"), slashed Rathbone's arm open to the bone, and then leapt from the box. Catching his spur in a flag, he crashed to the stage, breaking his left shin in the fall. Rathbone and Harris both yelled for someone to stop him, but he escaped out the back stage door.

An unconscious Lincoln was carried across the street to the Petersen House and into the room of a War Department clerk. The bullet had entered behind the left ear and ripped a path through the left side of his brain, mortally wounding him. He died the next morning.

Gideon Welles served Lincoln as Secretary of the Navy. On the night of April 14, he was awakened with the news that Lincoln had been shot. Together with Secretary of War Edwin Stanton, he rushed to Ford's Theater. They found the area packed with an excited crowd and learned that Lincoln had been taken to a house across the street. Clamoring up the stairs, Welles asked a doctor he recognized about Lincoln's condition. The physician replied that the President might live another three hours. We pick up his story as he enters the room where Lincoln lay:

"The President had been carried across the street from the theater to the house of a Mr. Peterson. We entered by ascending a flight of steps above the basement and passing through a long hall to the rear, where the President lay extended on a bed, breathing heavily. Several surgeons were present, at least six, I should think more. Among them I was glad to observe Doctor Hall, who, however, soon left. I inquired of Doctor Hall, as I entered, the true condition of the President. He replied the President was dead to all intents, although he might live three hours or perhaps longer.

The giant sufferer lay extended diagonally across the bed, which was not long enough for him. He had been stripped of his clothes. His large arms, which were occasionally exposed, were of a size which one would scarce have expected from his spare appearance. His slow, full respiration lifted the clothes with each breath that he took. His features were calm and striking. I had never seen them appear to better advantage than for the first hour, perhaps, that I was there. After that his right eye began to swell and that part of his face became discolored.

Senator Sumner was there, I think, when I entered. If not he came in soon after, as did Speaker Colfax, Mr. Secretary McCulloch, and the other members of the cabinet, with the exception of Mr. Seward. A double guard was stationed at the door and on the sidewalk to repress the crowd, which was of course highly excited and anxious. The room was small and overcrowded. The surgeons and members of the cabinet were as many as should have been in the room, but there were many more, and the hall and other rooms in the front or main house were full. One of these rooms was occupied by Mrs. Lincoln and her attendants, with Miss Harris. Mrs. Dixon and Mrs. Kinney came to her about twelve o'clock. About once an hour Mrs. Lincoln would repair to the bedside of her dying husband and with lamentation and tears remain until overcome by emotion.

An illustration of President Lincoln's death
scene published by Harper's Weekly
May 6, 1865
A door which opened upon a porch or gallery, and also the windows, were kept open for fresh air. The night was dark, cloudy, and damp, and about six it began to rain. I remained in the room until then without sitting or leaving it, when, there being a vacant chair which some one left at the foot of the bed, I occupied it for nearly two hours, listening to the heavy groans and witnessing the wasting life of the good and great man who was expiring before me.

About 6 A.M. I experienced a feeling of faintness, and for the first time after entering the room a little past eleven I left it and the house and took a short walk in the open air. It was a dark and gloomy morning, and rain set in before I returned to the house some fifteen minutes later. Large groups of people were gathered every few rods, all anxious and solicitous. Some one or more from each group stepped forward as I passed to inquire into the condition of the President and to ask if there was no hope. Intense grief was on every countenance when I replied that the President could survive but a short time. The colored people especially-and there were at this time more of them, perhaps, than of whites - were overwhelmed with grief.

A little before seven I went into the room where the dying President was rapidly drawing near the closing moments. His wife soon after made her last visit to him. The death struggle had begun. Robert, his son, stood with several others at the head of the bed. He, bore himself well but on two occasions gave way to overpowering grief and sobbed aloud, turning his head and leaning on the shoulder of Senator Sumner. The respiration of the President became suspended at intervals and at last entirely ceased at twenty-two minutes past seven"


Referanser:
Morse, John T. (editor), The Diary of Gideon Welles (1911) Panati, Charles. Panati's Extraordinary Endings of Practically Everything and Everybody (1988) Stephen B. With Malice toward None: The Life of Abraham Lincoln (1977).


The night Lincoln was assassinated, his new bodyguard went missing

At the end of the Civil War, President Abraham Lincoln had no illusions about the frequent threats to kill him.

On the afternoon of April 14, 1865 — five days after the South surrendered — he told one of his bodyguards, William Crook, “I have perfect confidence in those who are around me, in every one of your men … But if it is to be done, it is impossible to prevent it.”

That night, the 56-year-old Lincoln went to see a play at Ford’s Theatre under the watch of a new guard, a D.C. police officer named John Frederick Parker. Parker’s dereliction of duty helped change U.S. history.

Ironically, on this same day, Lincoln signed legislation to create the Secret Service — not to protect the president, but to combat counterfeiting. He was guarded round-the-clock by one member of a four-man security unit.

The 35-year-old Parker was an odd choice for this prestigious assignment. He had a record of unreliability, including drinking and frequenting a “house of ill repute” while on duty, according to the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum in Springfield, Ill.

Confederate sympathizers were everywhere in the capital. One of them was the famous 26-year-old actor John Wilkes Booth, who that day went to Ford’s Theatre to pick up his mail. The news was that Lincoln and Gen. Ulysses S. Grant planned to attend that evening’s Good Friday performance of the popular comedy “Our American Cousin.”

Lincoln wasn’t keen about going that night but didn’t want to disappoint the public. Grant and his wife decided to visit their children in New Jersey. So Lincoln and his wife, Mary Todd Lincoln, invited Clara Harris and her fiance, Maj. Henry Rathbone, to join them. Parker reported for duty three hours late and was sent ahead to Ford’s Theatre.

The presidential carriage got off to a late start. The play had begun when Lincoln and his party entered the theater well after 8 p.m. They went to a special presidential box above the right side of the stage. The actors stopped, and the crowd stood and cheered as the orchestra played “Hail to the Chief.”

Parker had been provided a chair outside the door to the box in a passageway. But he couldn’t see the play and soon moved into the audience. At intermission, he went to the Star Saloon next door. Whether he returned to the theater is still a mystery.


Abraham Lincoln’s Legacy Still Important 150 Years After His Assassination

President Abraham Lincoln died 150 years ago today, succumbing to a bullet wound delivered by the famous stage actor turned assassin, John Wilkes Booth. The 16th President of the United States was shot in the back of the head while watching the play “Our American Cousin” at Ford’s Theater in Washington D.C.

Lincoln’s assassination had actually been part of a larger plot by Confederate sympathizers angry about the South’s looming defeat in the American Civil War. When the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia surrendered at Appomattox Courthouse on April 12 , 1865, Booth and his fellow would-be assassins decided to go through with the plot. The conspirators planned to assassinate Lincoln and other high-ranking government officials in order to send the Union government into chaos. Strangely enough, John Wilkes Booth’s father, named Junius Brutus Booth after an assassin of Julius Caesar, was also a famous actor and had sent a threatening letter to President Andrew Jackson in 1835. Though he threatened Jackson with assassination, Junius never carried it out the younger Booth would end up pulling off the terrible deed 30 years later.

In the days leading up to his death, Lincoln was the happiest he had been during his entire presidency. Union victory was all but inevitable. However, the “Great Emancipator” had been having bad dreams about his own death and was struggling to get over the premature demise of his son, Willie. The fateful evening at Ford’s theater with his wife, Mary Todd Lincoln, was the president’s attempt to relax and return to a normal life.

Associated Press reporter Lawrence Gobright covered the dramatic events of the assassination that shocked the nation. He described the dramatic scene that spectators witnessed when Booth shot Lincoln.

The theatre was densely crowded, and everybody seemed delighted with the scene before them. During the third act and while there was a temporary pause for one of the actors to enter, a sharp report of a pistol was heard, which merely attracted attention, but suggested nothing serious until a man rushed to the front of the President’s box, waving a long dagger in his right hand, exclaiming, ‘Sic semper tyrannis,’ and immediately leaped from the box, which was in the second tier, to the stage beneath, and ran across to the opposite side, made his escape amid the bewilderment of the audience from the rear of the theatre, and mounted a horse and fled.

Booth then ran out of the theater and is believed to have yelled, “The South shall be free! I have done it! Virginia is avenged!”

In the Regnery History book, Backstage at the Lincoln Assassination, author Thomas A. Bogar described the reactions in Ford’s theater to the chaotic events of the assassination. Bogar wrote that when ticket agent Joe Sessford saw Booth leap onto the stage he exclaimed, “My God, then, is John Booth crazy?” Others were shouting, “Hang him! Kill Him! Shoot Him! Lynch him!” Actor Ned Emerson described the theater as “a whirlpool, [an] inextricable chaos of mad humanity [swirling] hither and tither in hysterical aimlessness… no one seemed to have retained a scintilla of self-possession.”

Lincoln’s assassin was able to slip out of the theater and went on the run from the law. He was hunted down by authorities and shot in a burning Virginia farm house near Port Royal, Virginia.

The president’s death stunned the nation and there was an enormous outpouring of grief as Lincoln’s funeral train made its 1,600-mile trip across the country, bringing his body from Washington, D.C. to its final resting place in Springfield, Illinois.

Lincoln’s legacy in the United States overshadows almost any other American outside of George Washington. Though he was so controversial in his own time that his presidential election sent one section of the country into open rebellion, there is no question that Lincoln’s life, leadership, and principles profoundly shaped the course of this nation’s history.

In a recent Wall Street Journal op-ed, James L. Swanson og Michael F. Bishop skrev om Lincolns betydning for moderne amerikanere og arven fra hans utidige død. "Lincolns død minner oss om at ledelse er viktig, og at mye avhenger av beboeren i Det hvite hus," skrev Swanson og Bishop. "Lincoln levde og døde for frihet, fagforening og like rettigheter for alle mennesker. Med hver sin fiber, trodde Abraham Lincoln på amerikansk storhet og eksepsjonalisme. ”

Hundre og femti år etter Lincolns død, mens landet forbereder seg på nok et presidentvalg, er det viktig å se tilbake på livet og prinsippene til denne amerikanske og dyktige begavede statsmannen.


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